Manuel decided to give the rhinoceros as a gift to the Medici Pope Leo X. ‘Rhinoceros’ was created in 1515 by Albrecht Durer in Northern Renaissance style. Artist: Albrecht Dürer (German, Nuremberg 1471–1528 Nuremberg) Date: 1515. Albrecht Dürer. Gilles Le Corre: 1525 Durer Initials (2010). 241; S.M.S. Le Rhinocéros de Dürer est une gravure sur bois d’Albrecht Dürer datée de 1515.L’image est fondée sur une description écrite et un bref croquis par un artiste inconnu d’un rhinocéros indien (Rhinoceros unicornis) débarqué à Lisbonne plus tôt dans l’année. The original document in German has not survived, but a transcript in Italian is held in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale in Florence. It is the mortal enemy of the elephant. Source. The rhinoceros is so well-armed that the elephant cannot harm it. He made his own drawing of the animal and soon produced the woodcut that proved to be one of the most commercially successful of its time. To the modern eye it does not appear to be a very realistic depiction of a rhinoceros. Rhinoceros Albrecht Dürer 1515. This may be Dürer's attempt to reflect the rough and almost hairless hide of the Indian rhinoceros, which has wart-like bumps covering its upper legs and shoulders. A fine example was sold at Christie's New York in 2013 for $866,500, setting a new auction record for the artist. The King was keen to curry favour with the Pope, to maintain the papal grants of exclusive possession to the new lands that his naval forces had been exploring in the Far East since Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India around Africa in 1498. He also assures the viewer that “This is an accurate representation”. Durer’s text at the top of the woodcut confirms the impression that the image gives of a powerful fighting beast feared even by elephants. Dürer n’a jamais observé ce rhinocéros qui était le premier individu vivant vu en Europe depuis l’époque romaine. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Asian animals previously imported for circuses and gladitorial events became scarce or non-existent in Western Europe. All Rights Reserved. A rhinoceros that was clearly based on Dürer's woodcut was chosen by Alessandro de' Medici as his emblem in June 1536, with the motto "Non vuelvo sin vencer" (old Spanish for "I shall not return without victory"). Albrecht Durer. [38][40], Despite its errors, the image remained very popular,[6] and was taken to be an accurate representation of a rhinoceros until the late 18th century. Rhinoceros . (He never personally saw one.) It was to be housed in the King’s menagerie at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon. It is said that the rhinoceros is fast, impetuous and cunning. The mission returned without an agreement, but diplomatic gifts were exchanged, including the rhinoceros. . The rhinoceros’ horn is much larger and imposing than in nature and, indeed, Durer shows the animal as having a second, smaller, spiral horn on its back. Albuquerque decided to forward the gift, known by its Gujarati name of genda, and its Indian keeper, named Ocem, to King Manuel I of Portugal. [32], A second woodcut was executed by Hans Burgkmair in Augsburg around the same time as Dürer's in Nuremberg. The image is based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon in 1515. He made a pen and ink drawing Albrecht Dürer Rhinoceros. Albrecht Durer. After resuming its journey, the ship was wrecked in a sudden storm as it passed through the narrows of Porto Venere, north of La Spezia on the coast of Liguria. [23] Dürer – who was acquainted with the Portuguese community of the factory at Antwerp[24] – saw the second letter and sketch in Nuremberg. Cet animal avait été offert par le roi du Portugal Manuel Ier au pape Leo X. Creator/Artist; Name: Dürer, Albrecht: Date of birth/death: 1471-05-21: 1528-04-06: Location of birth/death: Deutsch: Nürnberg. When Durer was young he le arned how to be a goldsmith like his father. The excitement of Europe’s expanding horizons and ambitions as well as its increasing knowledge and understanding of the wider world and of nature. [22] A second letter of unknown authorship was sent from Lisbon to Nuremberg at around the same time, enclosing a sketch by an unknown artist. Dürer may have anticipated this and deliberately chosen to create a woodcut, rather than a more refined and detailed engraving, as this was cheaper to produce and more copies could be printed. Albrecht Dürer had a showman’s instincts for killer subject matter. Durer never saw the rhinoceros himself. [47] Semiotician Umberto Eco argues (fetching the idea from E.H. Gombrich, Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation, 1961) that Dürer's "scales and imbricated plates" became a necessary element of depicting the animal, even to those who might know better, because "they knew that only these conventionalized graphic signs could denote «rhinoceros» to the person interpreting the iconic sign." His decision to issue the image as a woodcut made it accessible to many more people eager to experience something of that excitement. Dürer’s Rhinoceros is a woodcut created by Albrecht Dürer in 1515 A.D. As an illustration of an animal at the center of a famous series of events, the woodcut was highly popular in the artist’s lifetime. Dürer never saw the actual rhinoceros, which was the first living example seen in Europe since Roman times. In the context of the Renaissance, it was a piece of classical antiquity which had been rediscovered, like a statue or an inscription. 473x327 (35929 octets) ( fr:Rhinocéros Rhinocéros dessiné par fr:Albrecht_Dürer Albrecht Dürer en fr:1515 1515. [10] The ship, captained by Francisco Pereira Coutinho,[11] and two companion vessels, all loaded with exotic spices, sailed across the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope and north through the Atlantic, stopping briefly in Mozambique, Saint Helena and the Azores. Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) who achieved fame throughout Europe for the power of his images. [2] Dürer never saw the actual rhinoceros, which was the first living example seen in Europe since Roman times. The animal had been shipped to Lisbon in 1515 as a gift to King Manuel I of Portugal by Afonso de Albequerque the governor of Portuguese India. 3 vols I … 23.8 cm 29.9 cm. [13] The only known copy of the original published poem is held by the Institución Colombina in Seville. Despite its anatomical inaccuracies, Dürer's woodcut became very popular in Europe and was copied many times in the following three centuries. Developments in printing technology meant that his “Rhinoceros” could be reproduced in much greater quantities than previously and priced to be within the reach of the less wealthy. Español : El Rinoceronte de Durero es el nombre que recibe un grabado xilográfico creado por el pintor y grabador alemán Alberto Durero en 1515. Dimensions: image: 8 3/8 x 11 5/8 in. Home Biography Rhinoceros Legacy of Durer Bibliography Biography Education. Brought from India to the great and powerful King Emanuel of Portugal at Lisbon a live animal called a rhinoceros. (23.8 x 29.9 cm) Classification: Prints. Dimensions: Height: 212 millimeters (woodcut) and Width: 296 millimeters (woodcut) The work I have chosen from the Northern Renaissance is Rhinocerus (Rhinoceros) by Albrecht Dürer. Work location: Deutsch: Nürnberg, Augsburg, Venedig, Niederlande. [40][50], Some sources erroneously say 1513, copying a typographical error made by Dürer in one of his original drawings and perpetuated in his woodcut. The image is available via Institutional Open Content, and tagged Animals. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. The Portuguese vessel stopped briefly at an island off Marseilles,[18] where the rhinoceros disembarked to be beheld by the King on 24 January. Dürer’s depiction of the animal shaped the European image of an Indian rhinoceros right up to the mid 18th century, when another specimen arrived in Europe. [41] A sculpture of a rhinoceros based on Dürer's image was placed at the base of a 70-foot (21 m) high obelisk designed by Jean Goujon and erected in front of the Church of the Sepulchre in the rue Saint-Denis in Paris in 1549 for the royal entry welcoming the arrival of the new King of France, Henry II. 1. It was housed in King Manuel's menagerie at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, separate from his elephants and other large beasts at the Estaus Palace. Durer’s text at the top of the woodcut confirms the impression that the image gives of a powerful fighting beast feared even by elephants. Curator Susan Dackerman reveals the story behind the creation of Albrecht Dürer's famous "Rhinoceros" woodcut. Eventually, it was supplanted by more realistic drawings and paintings, particularly those of Clara the rhinoceros, who toured Europe in the 1740s and 1750s. Cole, F.J. (Francis Joseph), "The History of Albrecht Durer's Rhinoceros in Zoological Literature," essay in Underwood, E. Ashworth (ed. After a relatively fast voyage of 120 days, the rhinoceros was finally unloaded in Portugal, near the site where the Manueline Belém Tower was under construction. [33] His image is truer to life, omitting Dürer's more fanciful additions and including the shackles and chain used to restrain the rhinoceros;[33] however, Dürer's woodcut is more powerful and eclipsed Burgkmair's in popularity. From David Tunick, Inc., Albrecht Dürer, The Rhinoceros (1515), Woodcut on laid paper, 8 1/2 × 11 3/4 in The German inscription on the woodcut, drawing largely from Pliny's account,[14] reads: On the first of May in the year 1513 AD [sic], the powerful King of Portugal, Manuel of Lisbon, brought such a living animal from India, called the rhinoceros. Accession Number: 19.73.159. © www.AlbrechtDurer.org 2019. Deutsch: Nürnberg. Burgkmair corresponded with merchants in Lisbon and Nuremberg, but it is not clear whether he had access to a letter or sketch as Dürer did, perhaps even Dürer's sources, or saw the animal himself in Portugal. Both of these paintings were more accurate than Dürer's woodcut, and a more realistic conception of the rhinoceros gradually started to displace Dürer's image in the public imagination. "Albrecht Dürer The Rhinoceros (B. The carcass of the rhinoceros was recovered near Villefranche, and its hide was returned to Lisbon, where it was stuffed. Jean-Baptiste Oudry painted a life-size portrait of Clara the rhinoceros in 1749, and George Stubbs painted a large portrait of a rhinoceros in London around 1790. None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros,[5][6] although the Indian rhinoceros does have deep folds in its skin that can look like armor from a distance. The thick folded skin of the Indian rhinoceros has been portrayed as something more like armour plating. By this time the block was very damaged; the border lines were chipped, there were numerous woodworm holes and a pronounced crack had developed through the rhino's legs. The rhinoceros was already well accustomed to being kept in captivity. None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros. The elephant is afraid of the rhinoceros, for, when they meet, the rhinoceros charges with its head between its front legs and rips open the elephant's stomach, against which the elephant is unable to defend itself. A live rhinoceros was not seen again in Europe until a second specimen, named Abada, arrived from India at the court of Sebastian of Portugal in 1577, being later inherited by Philip II of Spain around 1580. [36] Janssen decided to re-issue the block with the addition of a new tone block printed in a variety of colours, olive-green and dark green, as well as blue-grey. [30] Alternatively, Dürer's "armour" may represent the heavy folds of thick skin of an Indian rhinoceros, or, as with the other inaccuracies, may simply be misunderstandings or creative additions by Dürer. Meder 1932 / Dürer Katalog (273.1) Bartsch / Le Peintre graveur (VII.147.136) Dodgson 1903, 1911 / Catalogue of Early German and Flemish Woodcuts in the BM, 2 vols (I.307.125) (first edition) Schoch 2001-04 / Albrecht Dürer, das druckgraphische Werk. Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros Can you make a visual representation of something you've never actually seen? [3][4], Dürer's woodcut is not an entirely accurate representation of a rhinoceros. [37] This was the seventh of the eight editions in all of the print. English: The Rhinoceros is a woodcut Albrecht Dürer made from a description provided him. See Clarke, p.19, for a photograph of a gargoyle. Original upload log (suppr) (actu) 17 juin 2005 à 22:56 . The Rhinoceros is a Northern Renaissance Wood Block Print Print created by Albrecht Dürer in 1515. If a stuffed rhinoceros did arrive in Rome, its fate remains unknown: it might have been removed to Florence by the Medici or destroyed in the 1527 sack of Rome. [46] In 1790, James Bruce's travelogue Travels to discover the source of the Nile dismissed Dürer's work as "wonderfully ill-executed in all its parts" and "the origin of all the monstrous forms under which that animal has been painted, ever since". The ruler of Gujarat, Sultan Muzafar II (1511-26) had presented it to Alfonso d'Albuquerque, the governor of Portuguese India. Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), « Le Rhinocerus de Lisbonne », 1515, xylographie sur papier, 21,4×29,8. The earliest known image of the animal illustrates a poemetto by Florentine Giovanni Giacomo Penni, published in Rome on 13 July 1515, fewer than eight weeks after its arrival in Lisbon. [42] A similar rhinoceros, in relief, decorates a panel in one of the bronze west doors of Pisa Cathedral. Some reports say that the mounted skin was sent to Rome, arriving in February 1516, to be exhibited impagliato (Italian for "stuffed with straw"), although such a feat would have challenged 16th-century methods of taxidermy, which were still primitive. [48], Until the late 1930s, Dürer's image appeared in school textbooks in Germany as a faithful image of the rhinoceros;[7] and it remains a powerful artistic influence. It is a world in which the nations of Europe were competing not just in Europe itself but across the globe in Asia as well as the Americas. On Trinity Sunday, 3 June, Manuel arranged a fight with a young elephant from his collection, to test the account by Pliny the Elder that the elephant and the rhinoceros are bitter enemies. Find more prominent pieces of animal painting at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. Martin Lorenz and Joan Pastor: VLNL TpDuro (2019). It was regarded by Westerners as a true representation of a rhinoceros into the late 18th century. He also notes that the skin of a rhinoceros is rougher than it visually appears and that such plates and scales portray this non-visual information to a degree. [36] Images derived from it were included in naturalist texts, including Sebastian Münster's Cosmographiae (1544), Conrad Gessner's Historiae Animalium (1551), Edward Topsell's Histoire of Foure-footed Beastes (1607) and many others. The animal was examined by scholars and the curious, and letters describing the fantastic creature were sent to correspondents throughout Europe. Schulfilm zu "Rhinocerus", einem Werk des Nürnberger Künstlers Albrecht Dürer aus dem Jahre 1515. ‎Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) who achieved fame throughout Europe for the power of his images. But when Dürer’s rhinoceros arrived in Lisbon, things weren’t quite so straightforward. It sailed on the Nossa Senhora da Ajuda,[9] which left Goa in January 1515. Dürer hatte das Nashorn selbst nie gesehen. Credit Line: Gift of Junius Spencer Morgan, 1919. [8] At that time, the rulers of different countries would occasionally send each other exotic animals to be kept in a menagerie. fr:Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Christophe.moustier ( fr:Discussion_Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Discuter) . In particular, Oudry's painting was the inspiration for a plate in Buffon's encyclopedic Histoire naturelle, which was widely copied. In early 1514, Afonso de Albuquerque, governor of Portuguese India, sent ambassadors to Sultan Muzaffar Shah II, ruler of Cambay (modern Gujarat), to seek permission to build a fort on the island of Diu. Albuquerque passed the gift on to Dom Manuel I, the king of Portugal. The popularity of the inaccurate Dürer image remained undiminished despite an Indian rhinoceros spending eight years in Madrid from 1580 to 1588 (although a few examples of a print of the Madrid rhinoceros sketched by Philippe Galle in Antwerp in 1586, and derivative works, have survived), and the exhibition of a live rhinoceros in London a century later, from 1684–86, and of a second individual after 1739. Clarke, caption to colour plate I, p.181. [2] In late 1515, the King of Portugal, Manuel I, sent the animal as a gift for Pope Leo X, but it died in a shipwreck off the coast of Italy in early 1516. La imagen se basaba en … Discover and collect art from Albrecht Dürer’s iconic The Rhinoceros series and more. Title: The Rhinoceros. A blackletter. This famous sketch of a rhinoceros was created in 1515 by the influential German artist, Albrecht Dürer, reflecting the growing interest in foreign curiosities that had emerged in tangent with the overseas voyages of exploration, commerce and conquest by the Spanish and Portuguese. So he began to a prepare a pen sketch relying on the written description and the sketch made by an unknown artist. (21.3 x 29.5 cm) trimmed to block line except at top sheet: 9 3/8 x 11 3/4 in. Dürer produced a first edition of his woodcut in 1515, in the first state, which is distinguished by only five lines of text in the heading. The woodcut was, per Quammen, p.204, cut on the block by a specialist craftsman known as a, Rough translation of the German original. On the other hand, his depiction of the texture may represent dermatitis induced by the rhinoceros' close confinement during the four-month journey by ship from India to Portugal.